July 21, 2010

Verbal Ability-Question of the Day

The question below contains a paragraph followed by alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the paragraph.

Maoism departs from conventional European-inspired Marxism in that its main focus is on the agrarian countryside, rather than the industrial urban forces. This is known as Agrarian socialism. Notably, Maoist parties in Peru, Nepal and Philippines have adopted equal stresses on urban and rural areas, depending on the country's focus of economic activity. Maoism broke with the state capitalist framework of the Soviet Union under Nikita Khrushchev and dismisses it as modern revisionism, a traditional pejorative term among communists referring to those who fight for capitalism in the name of socialism.

1) Maoism differs from European Marxism in that it focuses on Agrarian socialism except in Peru, Nepal and Philippines. It dismisses the Russian framework as revisionism.
2) The main focus of Maoism is the agrarian countryside rather than the industrial urban forces; it dismisses the state capitalist framework of the Soviet Union as modern revisionism.
3) Maoism differs from Marxism in two ways – it focuses only on the agrarian countryside and dismisses the Soviet model as a fight for capitalism in the name of socialism.
4) Maoism departs from Marxism in two ways: first, its main focus is on the Agrarian countryside; second, it rejects the Soviet state capitalism as modern revisionism.
5) Maoism unlike Marxism focuses only on Agrarian Socialism; it rejects the state capitalism of the Soviet Union and considers it modern revisionism.

Option 1 does not specify the Russian (Soviet Union) framework.
Option 2 does not mention Marxism.
Option 3 states it ‘focuses only on’.
Option 5 states ‘unlike Marxism ... only on’ – Marxism may not exclude agrarian socialism.
Option 4 is the best precis though not the ideal one. We are required to choose the best.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.



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